Tuesday, October 4, 2016

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Liver Importance

Liver Importance

Dear reader,
Today, I would like to share my views about the importance of human liver. Our discussion starts with the following figure.

Scarred Liver:
        a. Fatty Livers:
                Sedentary lifestyle(without any physical work after taking food) higher intake of  fatty foods, higher alcohol consumption and smoking are widely practiced in today's generation. Who is recklessly taking their liver, for granted to clean up the mess?  

        b. Recognize the signs of Liver under attack:
                 Scar tissue build up leading to cirrhosis is a slow gradual process as cirrhosis scar tissues slowly replace with the healthy liver tissue. Liver first swells and then starts shrinking upon degrading of cirrhosis. In early state, cirrhosis are asymptomatic, wherein the liver still continues to function but as the disease progress, liver shrinks. We observe the following.
        i. Itching
        ii. Edema
        iii. Fatigue
        iv. Weakness and nausea
        v. Weight loss due to loss of appetite.
        vi. Fluid bluish in abdomen.
        vii. Confusion and slurred speech.

        c. Diagnosis the cirrhosis liver:
                General factors such as alcohol consumption, obesity, hepatitis infections etc., play a vital role in directing the diagnosis of cirrhosis along with analyzing the patient medical and functional history.
        d. Blood test:
                This includes for ANA(Anti-Nuclear Antibody), AMA(Anti-Mitochondrial Antibody), Blood alcohol level, hepatitis infections and iron levels to determine the factor of cirrhosis.
        e. Liver function test:
                A sample of blood taken to determine the liver damage upon the estimation of excessive levels of bilirubin released when red blood cells are break down. Others are analyzed under the liver function test intake albumin, globulin, total serum protein where enzymes like aspirate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase.
        f. Kidney function test:
                Later stages of cirrhosis are marked by a reduce in kidney function, which is determined by testing creatinine levels.
        g. Clotting test:
                Prothrombin time and the international normalized ratio tests are commonly recommended to assess liver function. This test measure the time taken by the blood to clot and elevated results are considered to be an indicator of liver disease.
Acute Viral Hepatitis:
          A series of blood tests are performed to detect any current or past hepatitis A, B, C and infections to further observe diagnose acute liver function.
        Early cirrhosis is deal by providing target treatment of it's various casual factors such as treatment program for alcohol consumption, controlling blood sugar levels and weight, medications to control Hepatitis infections. There exist no single treatment to cure cirrhosis or repair already scarred liver. But, as per the cause, and extent of liver damage suggest lifestyle and dietary changes.
Coping with cirrhosis:
          Suffering from a chronic cirrhosis is not easy and takes a full even on the strongest and healthiest mind. A condition like cirrhosis need proper care and follow ups when affected gets regular treatment.
        1. Proper vaccinations against infections like Influenza, Pneumonia, Hepatitis etc. should be taken.
        2. Limit the salt amount and protein in your diet.
        3. Keep proper dental hygiene to avoid any mouth inflammation and gum bleeding.

        This disease does not happen in a day. It may be a silent killer. For years damaging liver without any symptoms. Or may have with some complications when lifestyle involved consume drinking and addictive smoking much to the ignore for years by the affected cirrhosis is fatal if left attended. The therefore, do not take liver for granted to clean up the toxins accumulations.
        Detoxifying blood from harmful substances like alcohol, bacteria, chemicals, to storing vitamins, iron in blood and sugar glucose. Destroying old red blood cells and aiding in digestion by secreting bile. Our body largest glandular organ liver is a multi-worker.
        Liver health is important for maintain metabolism. And to perform over 500 functions important for survival. It not only aid in production of blood clotting protein i.e., K-Vitamin. But also, absorb dietary fats, cholesterol, Vitamins A, E and D working throughout the day and processing everything ingested.

        Blessed with the wonderful capacity to regenerate liver cells(Hepatocytes) have regenerate and grow back from as little as 25% available liver mess. After a surgical removal this regeneration start to fail when an individual is severely affected by a prolonged or severe alcohol consumption. Taking excess deposit of components, i.e., glycoproteins, collagens etc., that creates excessive fibrous scar tissues and abnormal regenerative nodules. The blood flow through liver and slowly the  production of proteins and other substances. The processing of drugs, toxins continuously injure liver over time leading to liver cirrhosis. A medical condition which convert a normal liver architecture into that of structurally abnormal nodules and fibrous scar tissues.  

With this information, I hope you would understand the importance of Liver. Please feel free to give comments or suggestions in the below section. See you in my next article.

Thank You.

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Dear Reader,
        In my previous articles, we discussed about some of the health care topics. I observed some people are suffering from Insomnia. A lot people were neglecting their rest(sleeping) by putting themselves in so many duties. This restless work leads to so many health problems. One of the problems is Insomnia. Today, I would like to discuss on this topic. So let us start.

        Food and sleeping both are very important to everyone. In our daily life we perform different types of activities. To perform daily activities a lot of energy required. Biological activities based on light and dark. That's why we get sleeping mood when at night. But, our life style has been changed a lot. Physical and mental sickness causes to less sleeping. Some people are not going to sleep for days. If this condition continue, our body damage severely.
Stages of Sleeping:
          Of course, we felt that we are sleeping throughout night. Suppose, we went to sleep for 6 to 7 hours, unknowingly we wake up for every 90 minutes. This wakeup process continues whole night. Two stages are gets repeated in sleep cycle. One is rapid eye movement, another is non-rapid eye movement. In rapid eye movement eyes are moving, dreaming, speaking, walking(in some people) are seen in first stage. Brain is in active state at this stage.
        In non-rapid eye movement, we get deep sleep. It is known as true sleep. Naturally, any difficult in physical activities due to obstacles in two stages leads to non-sleeping. So, day time we feel fatigue, headache, pains in our body.

Sleeplessness Problems:

          Some chemicals are released from some sights of the brain, sufficiently to well sleeping. Any difficult in this process leads to non-sleeping. Naturally, everyone face non-sleeping problem.
          It is related to nervous system. Who suffer with this problem no control on their sleeping. They will get sleep at anywhere, at anytime, even in working they leave their doing work and prefer to sleep. But, suddenly they gets wakeup and continue their work.
        In releasing of chemicals in brain abnormally facing this type of problem. Through the polysomnogram test, doctors will identify it and suggest for treatment.
Sleep Apnea:
          This can be defined as obstacle in breathing leads non sleeping. We take breath 20 to 50 times(approximately) for one minute. This count gets reduced while sleeping. In some very rare cases this breathing stops for some time. If this duration(no breathing) exceeds 10 seconds, our oxygen levels gets reduced, immediately we gets wakeup for breath.
Hypo Apnea:
          In this problem, air quantity reduces in inhalation. But, not difficulty in breathing. If 30% of air quantity gets reduce in inhalation, it is known as obstructive sleep disorder.
          There are mainly three reasons causes to sleep apnea. They are namely, central, obstructive and mixed. Respiratory tract problems comes under obstructive type. In the central sleep apnea signals are not transmit from the brain that stimulates the breathing.
Continuous Positive Airway Pressure(CPAP):
          Gets disturbing in sleep for 5 to 15 times in an 1Hr is considered as moderate. If suffering from sleep apnea in 1Hr is 30 or above, considered as severe condition, 15 to 30 times considered as medium. Surgery is needed for above two cases except first one.
Bi level Positive Airway Pressure(BIPAS):
          It is an Instrument used, when Carbon dioxide (CO2) excess in human body. This is helpful in inhalation process, to breath excess Oxygen which equals to Carbon dioxide.
         Signals are not transmit from the brain to the lungs, due to the breathing does not takes in a proper manner. When this situation raise, doctors suggest stimulus instrument.
Restless Leg Syndrome:
          In this restless leg syndrome, at night times in sleeping hands and legs are move frequently due to nervous problem.
Sleeping Tablets:
          Sleeping tables are suggested by the doctors temporarily. Sedatives are helps in sedativeness leads to the sleeping. Due to sleep apnea thinking power, taking decisions reduces and raise other problem is Alzheimer. Oxygen percentage decreases in sleep apnea, which leads to many diseases are Hyper Tension, Blood Pressure, Difficulties in Heart beat. In breathing process we take Oxygen sufficiently in inhalation process. If any problem raise during night times in sleeping, means we are not taking sufficient Oxygen leads to above diseases. If excess Carbon dioxide accumulation in human body due to sleep apnea symptoms are sedativeness, headache, inactiveness. If these are continuous for a long period, causes to the respiratory tract failure.

By this, I am concluding that please everyone should take care about their sleep. 
Sleep well and be happy living. 

See you in my next article, please feel free to give comments and suggestions in the below section.

Thank You.

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Pregnancy Failure

Why Pregnancy Failure?

Welcome dear reader,
        Today, a lot of people are suffering from pregnancy failures. Because of only lack knowledge about how to secure pregnancy? Don't worry. small things make big innovations. Just follow me(as per my knowledge) it would help you a lot, to secure your pregnancy.  

        Knowing or unknowing, so many people are getting a failure in their  pregnancy. Based on this I was discussed with one my colleagues Mr Maddilety garu, I got a lot of information about this. Now, I would like to share my views as per my teacher.
Getting Pregnancy is not a big issue. But a lot of people were suffering from no pregnancy. Of course, they are getting....
        They are losing their pregnancy. as a Son, I am very sorry about this.
Let's share about the process of getting pregnancy and how to secure that. I wish to share about the reproduction. When we think about reproduction, Like this some questions are raised, are What is the reproduction? Why reproduction occurs? What will happen, if reproduction stop? Are all women have the pregnancy? Are all organisms produce its offsprings in the same manner? To answer these questions, there may be a lot of awareness needed on reproduction process and formation of an embryo.
        Reproduction is the process by which organisms produce its offsprings and other organisms also. Organisms produce its offsprings in 2 ways. They are namely,
1. Asexual mode of reproduction
2. Sexual mode of reproduction.
        Here, my topic is about pregnancy. So, we discuss sexual mode of reproduction. Reproduction is helpful to continue human race and other organisms.
        Simple flow chart for the pregnancy is as follows.


Usually producing capacity in human beings start from 12 years. Testis produce sperm  and ovaries are produce eggs or ovum from 12 or 13 years. The sperm and eggs are fusion is called fertilisation. If egg is fertilised  it's passage through oviduct to reaches the uterus. The uterus is ready to receive the fertilised egg in this process uterine walls are thickened and fertilised egg implant to the uterine walls. So after this process baby development takes place in uterus.

If fertilised egg fails to stick to the uterine other than this the egg is implanted to main cavity of the uterus known as Ectopic pregnancy. It occurs mainly in fallopian tube carry the egg towards the lining of  uterus post fertilisation known as tubal pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancy occurs mainly in the ovary, abdominal cavity, and neck of the uterus. An early treatment of an ectopic pregnancy have avoid any further harm to the sex organs of the female.

At starting of the ectopic pregnancy symptoms are not appeared and early signs are similar to the normal pregnancy. Vaginal bleeding, and mild cruel abdominal or pain of pelvic if fertilised egg implant to the oviduct due to this leaking of blood from the fallopian tube , shoulder pain and even urge to can a bowel movement.

Common symptoms are:
At the region of abdomen, pelvic have pain,
Light to heavy bleeding from vagina,
pain in shoulder and neck region,
overall weakness,
Discomfort during urinating.

If oviduct damaged while previous surgery have pose risk towards ectopic pregnancy.

If a woman using to get pregnancy  also increase the risk the fertilised ovum implanted to in areas other than the lining of the uterus.

If previous pregnancy have ectopic further pregnancy also to be an ectopic.
Intrauterine devices are not use to plan the pregnancy now it leads to the ectopic. Contraceptive pills also affect  mobility of the fertilised egg to trvel to the uterus.


Cigarette smoking by woman who is planing for pregnancy leads to the ectopic pregnancy.

If a woman with 35 years of age or more planning to pregnancy have risk towards ectopic pregnancy        

It causes to modifications reproductive organs which can obstruct the sufficient implantation of the fertilised egg.

If quickly treatments are not practiced, lead to rupturing the oviduct tube as a result this in fatal bleeding. The woman face also a problem of another same pregnancy to occur and even  in future will be faces related infertility issues.

Identifying ectopic pregnancy  to be difficult and hence any pain and bleeding identified during early days of pregnancy should be identified quickly without any further delay.

During pregnancy tropoblast cells are produced chronic gonadotrophic hormone as a result fertilised egg implantation. The levels of progesterone  prepare the endometrium lining for the pregnancy.

High frequency sound waves are passed to understand internal structure and the position of the foetus in the uterus. how considered the ectopic pregnancy if embryo implanted to oviduct tube it is a sign of ectopic pregnancy.

Diagnosing the problem and age of the embryo are help to select way to stop the pregnancy. The embryo is early stage injecting drugs to stop the pregnancy in the embryo have be done leads to the stop the division of the cells within the embryo and to its death. So, Ectopic pregnancy is known to have many risk factors involved, can happen to any of the pregnancies. Therefore, initial evaluation of the uterus and nullying the chances of ectopic pregnancy is important.    

See you in my next article, Please feel free to share your comments and suggestions in the below section.

Thank You

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History of Malaria
Dear Reader,
        I observed a lot of people were suffered from Malaria at least once in their lifetime. So, here I would like to share the almost information(I believe) about malaria and its consequences for the sake of educating the people.   


Protozoan parasite caused the Malaria disease. Plasmodium genus transmitted through the female anopheles mosquitoes. In 1880, Alphones Laveran discovered the Malaria parasite in the infected person. William Maccullum invented the sexual stages of mosquitoes reproduction in human blood. Dr. Ronald Ross was a military doctor, who did his research extensively on malaria for 16 years (1881-1897).

        Malaria disease is known from almost 5th century B.C. Malaria which derived from Italian which means bad air. So it was believed that bad air caused to malaria. Manson hypothesis is that mosquitoes transmit malaria. Sir Ronald Ross confirmed that mosquitoes are main sources to malaria.

Life cycle of plasmodium:
* In the infective stage the sporozoites(it is an asexual mode of reproduction stage of malaria parasite)  are entered into the human body. They attack liver cells.
* Sporozoites are increased through an asexual mode of reproduction. This leads to the production single nucleate merozoites. These merozoites attack red blood cell. Merozoites which attack another new red blood cell.
* This entire process occur repeatedly this leads to the malaria disease. Some young merozoites develop into a male and female gamete.
* Malarial parasites life mainly depends on two hosts. The primary host is the mosquito, the Secondary host is the man. The parasite develops in man through an asexual mode of reproduction. This phase of the life cycle of the parasite is known as an Asexual cycle.
* The phase of a life cycle in the mosquito is called sexual cycle. For the survival of the female mosquitoes they depend on man blood and male mosquitoes depend on plant juices.

Asexual reproduction in men:
        When female anopheles mosquito bites the parasite enter into our body. This phase of life is known as Sporozoites. These sporozoites enter into the liver cell after half an hour. Slowly they acquire totally liver cell and they feed on the contents of the liver cell. This phase is called crypto-schizont phase. Daughter cells are produced by asexual mode of reproduction by schizont. They are called Crypto-Merozoites.
        Merozoites are broken the liver cell and enter into the blood. Among some merozoites are attack the new cells. They are produced in a large number of merozoites and they are enter into the red blood cells. All these changes take place in the liver cells. Hence it is called pre-erythrocytic cycle. This entire process occurs in 7 to 17 days and parasite enter into the blood. But phase completed the parasite enter into the red blood cells.
        After entering into the red blood cells parasite feed on the content of the red blood cells. So their body size grows. They are completely developed, occupy the inner space of the red blood cells. They are called Schizont. 6 to 24 merozoites are produced by the division of the schizont. Red blood cells are ruptured by merozoites and released into the blood. Merozoites are again attacked the new red blood cells. So their number increased. This is the stage of the Erythrocytic cycle. This process takes place in red blood cells. Hence it is called Erythrocytic cycle. The break of the red blood cells and enter into the blood is linked with cold and fever. It is treated as malarial fever.
        After few generations, some of the merozoites develop into gametocytes in the red blood cells. They are two kinds…
1. Macro gametocytes
2. Micro gametocytes
Gametocytes further development takes place in the mosquito.

Life cycle in mosquito:
        Mosquito sucks the blood gametocytes enter into its digestive system. Their further development takes place when they migrate into the walls of the digestive system. Macro gametocytes develop into macrogamete which is equal to unfertilized egg. Micro gametocytes give to microgamete which is equal to sperms.
        Fusion of egg and sperms resulting this zygote is formed. Zygotes travel to the outer layer of the wall. It develops in size and divided into a large number of sporozoites.
        The sporozoites travel towards the salivary glands of mosquito. When infected mosquito bites sporozoites are released into the human body along with mosquito saliva. Inculcation period varies for different species of plasmodium. Malaria begins with a sensation of extremely cold. Patients want to be covered with heavy blankets. Human body temperature raised for 106oF. This stage may be seen for a period of 2 to 4 hours. Severe headache
and body pains are common during this period.
        Next stage is releasing sweat. This process occurs 2-3 days when merozoites are ruptured the red blood cells. If parasite enters into the children body it blocks the capillaries, which are supplying blood to the brain.
        Quinine is used to treat malaria. But parasite is developed resistance to Quinine. That’s why new drugs were invented to control malaria. To control malaria the best way is controlling mosquito population and using mosquito nets. Before the invention of the life cycle of the malaria parasite, malariologist could not explain how the malaria parasite transmits from one person to another.
        Italian malariologist concluded that mosquitoes were helped to transmit the malaria disease. Ronal Ross discovered that plasmodium rectum caused to avian malaria in birds. In the human being also malaria spread through mosquitoes.

  Ronald Ross believed that malaria is not caused by mosquitoes and thought it is an intestinal infection. Monson and Ross showed blood slides containing malaria parasite. Incompletely understanding of life cycle in humans, nobody knows how the parasite grows in first 10 days. The stage of a life cycle in humans malaria parasite to complete time taken nearly 70 years. To understanding human malaria before this malariologist commonly formed in birds, mammals ad reptiles.
        After a few centuries various discoveries concerning the malaria parasite and their transmission. Alphonse Laveran observed first that parasites are present in the blood of malaria patient in 1980. Finally, Ronald Ross discovered the life cycle of the malaria parasite in man and female anopheles mosquito and he got the noble prize in the year 1902 for this invention.
        On 20th August, 1897, Ross found clear outlines about 12mm diameter cells. Each cell containing a type of cell, black pigment. He draws rough sketches in his notebooks. Finally, Ross discovered the route map of malaria. Infected patient blood to mosquito stomach to salivary glands to infect a healthy person. So on 20th August we celebrate world malaria day.

        I am feeling very happy to share my knowledge with you. Feel free to give any comments, suggestions.

Thank You.

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Dear Reader,

We  know from the decade a lot of people were suffering from HIV-AIDS. In this article, I would like to share some information about this virus to educate the people to stop HIV-AIDS.

HIV is the name of a virus and is the short form of Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This virus causes AIDS(Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) disease. HIV belongs to the subgroup of Retroviridea and Lentivirus. In 1983, HIV was discovered by LUC Montagnaier at Paris. In 1984, it was discovered by Robert Gallo in the USA.

Generally, in the human body immune system built. This immune system damaged by the HIV virus , so men weaken, even their immune system does not fight against the disease causing organisms. Finally, this leads to the disease known as AIDS.

AIDS stands for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome. Mainly there are 4 stages in HIV-infected person.

Acute HIV infection:

After infection of HIV virus from 2-6 weeks, some symptoms were noticed. The infected person may have a flu-like fever for 2 days after 2-3 weeks symptoms disappeared. Virus number large in the blood of the infected person. But no antibodies in the blood, which actually fight against with unwanted organisms.

HIV infection:

Viruses are present in the blood appeared but antibodies disappeared this period is called Window Period. In this stage, viruses are spread from one person to others. But, antibodies tests will be negative.

Incubation period:
In this stage, the person tested HIV antibodies will be positive. But, symptoms disappeared. This stage lasts for about 3-5 years.

Symptomatic period:
In this stage, the immune system function decreases. Maybe the person gets symptoms like fever, Diarrhea and skin diseases. This stage lasts for 2-3 years.

AIDS stage:
After infection of HIV virus, the person reaches the AIDS stage. The time required to convert HIV to AIDS is 5-10 years. In this stage, the immune system greatly reduced due to HIV virus action on mainly its symptoms like T.B, frequent cough etc., as a result, body weight gets to lose 10%, skin gets rashes and suffer from frequent fever. Lymph glands get swollen with diarrhoea in one month.
80-90% of HIV-infected people survive for 10 years. 5-10% of people survive only for 3-5 years. Only 5% of people live longer without the development of AIDS.

Modes of transmission:
HIV lives mainly in human body fluids like semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk, and blood. HIV concentration large in blood gradually decreases i semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. The life span of HIV only 15-30 seconds outside of the body. HIV does not spread through body fluids like saliva, tears, sweat, faeces and urine because of HIV concentration negligible in this fluids.

Transmission of HIV:
HIV spread from person to others mainly through 4 ways. Through sexual mode of transmission HIV commonly spread from one to others. Having unsafe sex, which means having sex unknown person without a condom is called unsafe sex. When infected person blood transfuses to others by this way, 100% HIV transmitted to others. From HIV +ve mothers to their children during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. By using HIV-contaminated instructions like syringes, needles, surgical or dental instruments. In the state of Andhra Pradesh (India), 91% of HIV infection occurs due to the sexual mode of transmission.

HIV does not transmit through:
By sharing lunch, touching, hugging, kissing on cheeks, sharing of toilets, shaking hands, sharing of toilets, using clothes of HIV +ve persons. HIV does not spread through the mosquito bite and insects bites.

Tests for HIV status:
We can not identify HIV +ve persons because of they appeared externally like a healthy person. First 5 years no symptoms appeared. We identify through the only blood test. We identify through the only blood test. Mainly 3 tests are, ELISA, Western Blot Test, PCR.

Prevention methods:
Each one protects themselves by following moral values and healthy habits. The discipline and responsibility play a vital role in avoiding HIV . By giving necessary medical treatment to the infected mother to protect the child. By using disposable syringes and needles must be used. Once HIV virus enters the body there is no way to eliminate them. To know about any information about HIV here is the toll-free number- 1097.
          India has occupied 3rd place in HIV-AIDS. Overall in India HIV infections are reduced by 19% between 2005-2013. AIDS-related deaths also reduced with 38%. In India, female sex workers are 8,68,000 among them 2.8% of sex workers living with HIV. This number may vary from state to state. In India, there are 4,27,000(Approximately) males, among them 4.4% are infected with HIV.

HIV transmission occurs through mainly truck drivers in India. Because most of the time they spend out of their home, they spend more time on duty, marital status, consume alcohol and income level are plays a vital role in visiting with sex workers. So now 2.6% of the Million people, they are truck drivers living with HIV in India. In UttarPradesh, it has so many myths about HIV transmission. They are  a mosquito bite, shaking hands and sharing food. The National AIDS control Organization is responsible for implementing policies for the prevention and control HIV. The aim of the NACP-IV is to reduce annual new HIV infections to 50% through awareness about HIV treatment. The following are the top 10 countries around the world which are high infected with HIV virus.
1. South Africa
2. Botswana
3. India
4. Kenya
5. Zimbabwe
6. United States
7. The Democratic Republic of Congo
8. Mozambique
9. Tanzania
10. Malawi

I would like to  conclude this article here by, saying please follow safe sex, take care while using syringes, needles to stop HIV virus. Prevention is better than cure.   
See you in my next article. Please feel free to comment or suggestions in below section.

Thank you.

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Dear Reader,
 Now I Would like to share my feelings about one of the dangerous diseases. Here it is. Its name is Chikungunya. 

Generally we see that illness occurs in only rainy season. usually malaria, typhoid, cholera, typhoid, Chickungunya diseases are occurs only in this season. In rainy season we see a huge mosquito population. If favorable conditions available each organism produce of its offsprings. Especially mosquitoes are produce its offsprings numerous within the short period. So, rainy season is the to laying eggs of mosquitoes and its development.

All countries are developing, some are developed in IT(Information and Technology) and Agriculture. But, somewhat ignoring their country's people health. This is because of lack of awareness on the importance of health and less knowledge in preventing methodologies on vectors(those carry disease-causing organisms) of diseases. It is the responsibility of every human being to know and understand the importance of health without depending/expecting help from  some other 3rd  person/government health/private health organizations. To avoid diseases from all mosquito vectors , we must keep our surroundings clearly. Pour the kerosene on the surfaces of stagnant water. Mainly my intention about to write this article is to provide awareness to the public with respect to Chikungunya and its symptoms, transmission, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control.   
chikungunya is a one type of viral disease. Infected mosquitoes are vectors for the chikungunya. Dengue and chikungunya symptoms are similar. Therefore it can be misdiagnosed where dengue is common. Treatment focused on assist the disease symptoms. No cure for this disease.  
Chikungunya disease spread in Asia, Africa, and subcontinent of India. vectors of chikungunya recently spread to America, and an Europe From last few decades.
Virus of chikungunya belongs to Ribo Nucleic Acid. It's family is Togaviridae and genus Alphavirus. Kimakonde is one language which means control. chikungunya word derived from Kimikode language. This disease described as bending forward along with joint pain.


Chikungunya is an abrupt fever frequently with joint pain. Other common symptoms are fatigue, rashes, nausea, headache and muscle pains.
The joint pains are very weakened the body usually lasts for a few days or maybe enlarge to weeks. Therefore virus may be cause to chronic means throughout life, acute, and subacute.
Generally affected patients are recover, but in some cases, joint pains occur for several months to years. In older people, the disease has contributed to the cause of death.

In   60 countries the chikungunya transmitted through infected mosquito bite in an Europe, America, and Asia.
vectors of chikungunya are Aedes aegypti, and Aedes albopictus. These two mosquitoes are active daytime and bite means morning and afternoon. Two species of mosquitoes are biting outdoors but Aedes empty rapidly feed indoors.
If an infected mosquito bite, illness happens between 4 to 8 days but have ranged from 2 to 12 days.

To diagnose the disease several methods are available. ELISA test determined the presence of lgG AND lgM antibodies of chikungunya.
Samples collected from affected person during the first week and examined by ELISA test and virological test. The virus may be separated from the blood first few days after infection.
Till now, no specific antiviral drug to prevent from chikungunya. Treatment is primarily relieving the symptoms. No vaccine for the chikungunya disease.

In our surrounding no water stagnant, they may help to breed the mosquitoes of chikungunya. Insecticide may sprayed to kill the flying mosquitoes . Spray the surfaces of containers where mosquitoes are land and use treat water  in containers to kill the larvae of immature stage.To protect from mosquito biting fully clothing is the best which reduce the skin exhibit to the day.

Mosquito coils are use to prevent from biting. Who sleep during day time especially young children's, ill older people better to use insecticide and use mosquito nets for good protection.

Basic precautions are   wearing long sleeves, pants. Take care rooms are fitted with screens to avoid mosquitoes entering. 

So, Please be take care about this disease. I hope you understand the dangerous of this disease. Please share this information to all. see you in my next article. Please feel free to give comments and suggestions in the below section. 

Thank You.

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Programming Languages

Programming Languages

        A program is one of the most popular words, we use in our regular life. In general, the program means an occasion. That means we are doing some event, because of some purpose. Similarly, in computers also, we are going to do tasks with the help of programs. Actually, before writing this article, my daughter asked me a bunch of questions. Those questions make me motivate to collect and share the following information about programming languages. Let us start our discussion about programming languages with meaning.

        For doing things with computers, we must provide commands to the computer in the form of statements. All these statements are known as Instructions. That means, before assigning all these instructions to the computer, we must group these instructions together as a block.
        This group of instructions to complete a task successfully is known as a Program. Of course, some programs are not executed successfully, means that the result of those programs,  may not help for users. Even though there is no use with that type of statements, we call them as programs. In my point of view, those are known as Virus Programs.
        Whatever may be, a successful or unsuccessful group of instruction given to a computer to perform a certain task is known as a Program. That means to assign work to the computer, we must provide with a group of instructions/commands/statements. To do this, we use a language known as Programming Language. There are so many programming languages are available. A programmer(who writes the program) his choose his convenient language to write the program. Usually, we write instructions in normal public using language like English. So, these languages are known as High-Level languages.  Once, we wrote a program using any high-level language, that has to be translated to machine understandable language(Low-Level Language). This responsibility has been taken by either compiler or interpreter. So, technically saying, a Programming language is a special language used by programmers to develop applications. The first programming language was developed by Konrad Zuse is Plankalkul in between 1943 and 1945. But it actually came in practice in 1998.
        Now I would like to introduce few important(according to me) programming languages. Let's begin our tour.


FORTRAN stands for FORmula TRANslator/TRANslation. It was the first and oldest computer programming language developed at IBM by John Backus. The first version was released in the year 1957 for the computer model IBM 704.  In 1958, IBM released FORTRAN II( Second version of FORTRAN) with functions and subroutines. In 1966, ANSI (American National Standard  Institute) released FORTRAN 66. It was the first Formal Standard Programming language. In 1977, X3J3(ANSI FORTRAN Standards Committee) added true block IF statement, direct access I/O, Character Data type, Parameter Statement for defining Constants and released with name FORTRAN 77. This version becomes most popular used programming version. In 1991, ISO(International Standard Organization) released FORTRAN 90.  


LISP stands for LISt Processor. It was developed by John McCarthy in 1960. Based on the idea: Computing is done with symbols rather than numbers, LISP was designed. Usually, it is used in Artificial Intelligence research Program.

COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language. It was developed in 1959 by CODASYL(Conference on Data Systems Languages). It is the second oldest high-level programming language. It was developed by Grace Hopper and Bob Bemer. In 1968, ANSI(American National Standards Institute) developed a standard form of language known as ANS COBOL. Again in 1974, ANSI released revised version. By adding new features, in 1985 ANSI published another version. COBOL 97 version has both conventional and object-oriented features. COBOL is very good for solving business problems. 


PASCAL is a high-level programming language. It is also known as general purpose programming language. It was developed by Niklaus Wirth in the year 1970. Pascal is based on Algol(Algorithmic Language). PASCAL is not an acronym. It was named with 17th-century mathematician Blaise Pascal. It is strongly typed language. It comes with several data types like records, sets, files and arrays. It supports with functions and procedures.

C-Programming Language

C Programming language was designed at Bell Laboratories in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie. It is the branch of BCPL(Basic Combined Programming Language). In 1978, The C programming language was published by Kernighan and Ritchie. In 1983, ANSI started a project for a standard version of C. In 1988, ANSI released standard version known as  ANSI C. C-programming language has so many features like Reliability, Flexibility, Modularity, Portability, Interactivity, Efficiency, and Effectiveness. UNIX operating system was developed by using this C-Language. This language is used to develop verity of system applications like Graphics Package, Database Systems, Spreadsheets, Word processors, Operating Systems, Compilers, Assemblers, Interpreters and Network Drivers.


The title C++ is originated with "C with Classes". C++ is a high-level programming language. It was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in the year 1979. The first C with Classes was called Cfront. it was derived from C-compiler Cpre. In 1983, the name C with Classes changed to C++. In 1985, C++ programming language was released. In 1990, Annotated C++ reference manual has been released. In 1998, first International Standard for C++ ISO/IEC 14882:1998. Informally this is known as C++98. C++ includes with object-oriented features such as classes, inheritance, abstraction, encapsulation and polymorphism.  C++ continues to be updated. In 2011, current version C++11 has released.


PERL is the short form of Practical Extraction and Reporting Language. It is an Open Source Programming Language, designed by Larry Wall in the year 1987. This language is very similar to C-Programming language. In 1988, PERL II with regular expression engine feature was released. By adding support for binary data streams, in 1989, PERL III was released. In 1993 and 1994, PERL IV and PERL V were released successively. On 13 March 1995, PERL 5.001 was released. On July 22, 1998, PERL 5.005 was released. On March 22, 2000, PERL 5.6 was released with 64-bit support.  The latest version PERL 5.13.9 released on 21 January 2011 by Jesse Vincent. It is the most commonly used language for CGI(Common Gateway Interface) scripts.


Python was developed by Guido Van Rossum in the year 1991. It is an Interactive, Interpreted, Object-Oriented Programming language. The first implementation standard was released in the year of 1989. Version 0.9.0 was released on 20 February 1991.  Later , in this month itself, version 0.9.1 was released. During last months of 1991, version 0.9.2 was released. On 24 December 1991 version 0.9.4 was released. After continued updated versions, the latest version Python 3.0 was released on 3 December 2008. In the version 3.0, print  function made as a built-in function and changed integer built-in functionality. Ex: in Python 2, result for 7/2=3. But in Python 3 the result is 3.5. Its main syntax and some aspects are taken from the basic language ABC. At the same time some syntax provided by the C-Programming Language. Regular expressions for string manipulations are based on PERL. In some cases, additions and some syntactical choices were strongly influenced by the JAVA language.


RUBY is a high-level programming language. It is also known as general purpose programming language. It is an open-source, object-oriented programming language. It is mainly focused on simplicity and productivity. A framework knows as Ruby on Rails is using developing web programming. The first version Ruby 0.95 was released in the year 1995, Later the version RUBY 1.9.3 was released in the year 2011. It was designed and developed by Yukihiro Matz Matsumoto in Japan in the year 1990. RUBY was influenced by Smalltalk, Perl, Eiffel, Lisp and Ada. It has a dynamic type of system and automatic memory management. It is having four levels of variable scopes which include, Class, Local, Global and Instance. It supports Exception Handling, Operator Overloading, Garbage Collection and default arguments. It is having  centralized package management through RubyGems. It is also implemented on all major platforms. It is having a large library modules for HTTP(Hyper Text Transfor Protocol), FTP(File Transfer Protocol), YAML(Yet Another Markup Language), XML(Extensible Markup Language), JSON(JavaScript Object Notation), OpenSSL(Open Secure Sockets Layer), RSS(Really Simple Syndication), Tk, Curses, and Zlib(Zip Library). The syntax of Ruby is most similar to Python and Perl.   


JAVA Programming language was developed by James Gosling at Sun Micro Systems in the year 1995. The original name for JAVA is Oak. This language is popularly used for developing Internet Applications. With the Help of this JAVA programming Language, We can develop Web applications as well as Network Programming and Standard alone applications. Today JAVA is owned by Oracle.
In beginning days, Java starts with a group of team members known as Green Team. In the year June 1991 James Gosling, Patrick Naughton and Mike Sheridan were initiated Java language project. In the beginning days, it was designed for small and embedded systems in electronic devices like set-up boxes. It was Greentalk  and has the extension .gt .Later as a part of Green project, it was named as Oak. In the year 1995, Oak was renamed with JAVA. Because Oak is already used as the trademark for Oak Technologies. There were several versions of Java has been released. They are, In 1995, JDK Alpha and Beta version, On 23 January, 1996 JDK1.0, On 19 February, 1997 JDK1.1, On 8 December, 1998 J2SE1.2, On 8 May, 2000 J2SE1.3, On 6 February 2002 J2SE1.4, On 30 September 2004 J2SE5.0, On 11 December 2006 JAVA SE6, On 28 July 2011 JAVA SE11, On 18 March 2014 JAVA SE8 were released.
JAVA includes features like Simple, Object-Oriented, Platform Independent, Robust, Secured, Architecture neutral, Dynamic, Portable, Interpreted, High Performance, Multi-threaded and Distributed.    


PHP Stands for Hypertext Pre Processor. It was developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in the year 1994. On June 8, 1995, PHP has been publicly released. The main purpose of PHP is to develop Dynamic Web Pages deals with databases. It is a Server side Interpreted scripting Language. PHP takes most of its syntaxes from C-Programming Language. PHP runs on Web Server. PHP developers can be classified as Web Developers or Software Developers. PHP code may be included into HTML code  or it can be used in combination of different web templates, web content management, web frameworks.


 JavaScript was developed by Brendan Eich, which was initially known as LiveScript. In the year May,1995 LiveScript was renamed with JavaScript.  It is an Client-Side scripting Language. That means it executed on Client machine web browsers. JavaScript allows us to insert into our web page. JavaScript mostly placed in HTML(Hyper Text Markup Language) or ASP(Active Server Pages) files.
JavaScript comes with features like, Variables, Objects, Arrays, Operators, Methods, Functions, Conditional Statements ,Loops, Event Handlers and Comments.

With all this information, I hope you will get a brief introduction and information about various programming languages and their unique features. See you in my next article. Finally, Please feel free to give comments and suggestions in the below section.

Thank You.  

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